There are many different promoted ‘methods’ or ‘recipes’ for treating aggression in dogs. All sound techniques are grounded in the scientific principles of learning theory (classical conditioning and operant conditioning) and will take into account physical, physiological and ethological principles as well as reflect the ethical stance and moral viewpoint of the trainer/behaviourist.
Aggression can be defined as ‘intent to do harm’ but that is not what we normally see – in fact signals that appear aggressive are intended to repel the perceived threat and reduce the need to do harm.
The 4 primary ways of dealing with aggression are through consequences, association, access and brain chemistry.
Operant conditioning changes the consequences of showing behaviour.
Calm looking, move away, recall, stay in one place while something passes are all examples of alternative behaviours that can be trained.
Classical counterconditioning alters the association with the object, person or situation that now provokes aggression. The dog learns to associate good feelings with the presence of the thing , without unwanted interactions with it.
Observation, timing (of reinforcement and feedback), sequence of execution and managing the animal at the right level of arousal are all important.
Management to prevent or limit access to the aggression-provoking thing is an essential part of most behaviour plans to treat aggression
And medication or dietary change can sometimes be used to alter brain chemistry and help animals learn and be calmer.